Japanese coins can be dated either in Japanese numerals or Arabic numerals. In most cases, however, Japanese coins use the nengo dating system, which I will describe and explain in this short guide. In order to date coins that use the nengo dating system, you must first be able to translate the numbers. If a small number from Chart A is front a larger number from Chart B, you multiply the smaller number by the larger number. Prior to , Japanese numerals were written in the traditional right to left manner on coins. In order to determine if they use that method or the Western method left to right , simply look for the Japanese symbol nen, meaning year fig.
Cash (Chinese coin)
World Coin Collecting: Reading Japanese Numbers and Dates
Originally cast during the Warring States period , these coins continued to be used for the entirety of Imperial China as well as under Mongol , and Manchu rule. The last Chinese cash coins were cast in the first year of the Republic of China. Generally most cash coins were made from copper or bronze alloys, with iron , lead , and zinc coins occasionally used less often throughout Chinese history. Rare silver and gold cash coins were also produced.
Dating Chinese coins
The most commonly encountered Chinese cash date from the Ching Dynasty and have the Manchurian "BOO" character on the reverse left hand side. This character only occurs on Ching Dynasty cash, so it it is present on the back of your coin, click here, or on the image , to go to a page that lists the Ching Dynasty obverse types. The most common non-Ching Chinese cash coins are shown below. If you see one that matches your coin, just click on the image and it will take you to the listing for that type.
The identification of Chinese cast coins can be difficult, even for those who can read the characters. For the rest of us it can be a very frustrating experience. The purpose of this part of our site is to make the process easier. This will be a work in progress for some time to come, as we add more types.